There are literally thousands of loan programs available in the market. Every lender tries to be as different as they can to create a special niche, which they hope will increase business. It would be impossible to provide a review of every type of loan, so in this article, we’ll just stick to the main ones. Most loan programs are variations of the loans we will cover here. First of all we will go over some terminology you should understand and then we will delve into the different mortgage programs available today.
Amortization is the paying back of the money borrowed plus interest. The actual term, or length of the mortgage along with the amortization is what determines what the payments will be and when the loan will be paid off. It is a means of paying out a predetermined sum (the principal) plus interest over a fixed period of time, so that the principal is completely eliminated by the end of the term. This would be easy if interest weren’t involved, since one could simply divide the principal amount into a certain number of payments and be done with it. The trick is to find the right payment amount,which includes some principal and some interest. The formula of amortization uses only 12 days a year to compute the interest. The interest payment on a mortgage is calculated by multiplying 1/12th (one-twelfth) of the interest rate times the loan balance of the previous month.
On a 30-year, $150,000 mortgage with a fixed interest rate of 7.5 percent,a homeowner who keeps the loan for the full term will pay $227,575.83 in interest. The lender does not expect that person to pay all that interest in just a couple of years so the interest is spread over the full 30-year term. That keeps the monthly payment at $1,048.82.
The only way to keep the payments stable is to have the majority of each month’s payment go toward interest during the early years of the loan. Of the first month’s payment, for instance, only $111.32 goes toward principal. The other $937.50 goes toward interest. That ratio gradually improves overtime, and by the second-to-last payment, $1,035.83 of the borrower’s payment will apply to principal while just $12.99 will go toward interest.
There are four types of loans when dealing with amortization and term. They are:
1. Fixed: with conventional fixed rate mortgages, the interest rate will stay the same for the life of the loan. Consequently the mortgage payment (Principal and Interest) also stays the same. Changes in the economy or the borrower’s personal life do not affect the rate of this loan.
2. Adjustable: (ARM) also called variable rate mortgages. With this loan the interest rates can fluctuate based on the changes in the rate index the loan is tied to. Common indexes are 30 year US Treasury Bills and Libor (London Interbank Offering Rate). Interest rates on ARMs vary depending on how often the rate can change. The rate itself is determined by adding a specific percentage, called margin, to the rate index. This margin allows the lender to recover their cost and make some profit.
3. Balloon: A loan that is due and payable before it is fully amortized. Say for example that a loan of $50,000 is a 30-year loan at 10% with a five-year balloon. The payments would be calculated at 10% over 30 years, but at the end of the five years the remaining balance will be due and payable. Balloon mortgages may have a feature that would allow the balloon to convert to a fixed rate at maturity. This is a conditional offer and should not be learn more about our services confused with an ARM. In some cases, payments of interest only have to be made, and sometimes the entire balance is due and the loan is over. Unpaid balloon payments can lead to foreclosure and such financing is not advisable to home buyers. Balloons are used mainly in commercial financing.
4. Interest only: This type of loan is not amortized. Just like the name implies the payments are of interest only. The principal is not part of the payment and so does not decline. Interest only loans are calculated using simple interest and are available in both adjustable rate loans and fixed rate loans.
Fixed rate: The fixed rate loan is the benchmark loan against which all other loans are compared to. The most common types of fixed rates loans are the 30 year and the 15 year loans. The 30 year loan is amortized over 30 years or 360 payments while the 15 year is amortized over 180 payments. For the borrower, the 15 year loan has higher payments, since the money needs to be repaid in half the time. But because of that same feature the interest paid to the bank is much lower as well.